Adventure Therapy has numerous studies proving its effectiveness. Different national and supranational organizations such as the American Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare Center, the Australian section of Bush Adventure Therapy Research and Evaluation or the Scandinavian Nordic Outdoor Therapy Research are developing powerful lines of research.
Some of the variables, where more significant changes occur according to Gass, Gillis and Russel (2012) and Bowen & Neill’s (2013) meta-analysis, are listed below:
Significant decrease in clinical symptomatology (Berman & Davis – Berman, 2008).
Reduction of aggressiveness towards others (Kraus, 1982)
Reduction in the number of relapses, reduction of arrests and criminal, disruptive or antisocial behaviors (Russell, 2006, and Berman and Davis – Berman, 2008).
SELF-CONCEPT AND SOCIAL SKILLS
Improved self-concept (dimensions of independence, confidence, self-efficacy, self-understanding) (Hattie et al., 1997).
Improved defensiveness and increased social acceptance (Porter, 1975).
Improved interpersonal effectiveness (Weeks, 1985)
Positive effects on cooperative behaviors (Sachs & Miller, 1992)
Positive attitude change towards substance use and positive effects on relapse prevention (Gillis & Simpson, 1992)
Effectiveness in reducing the frequency of negative thoughts and reduction of craving for alcohol (Benet et al., 1998)
Reduced incidence of relapse (Russell, 1999)
Reduced substance use (Russell, 2008)
Transition from pre-contemplative stage to action readiness and action stages (Winters, 1999)